Polyester fibre is a synthetic fibre widely used in the production of clothing, underwear and accessories. Petroleum, coal, air and water are the basic raw materials used for the production of premium quality polyester. These basic raw materials combine to produce Glycol monomer dihydric alcohol and Terephtahlic acid. After being polymerized into an autoclave at high temperatures polyester “chips” are produced that are then melted again and spun to produce the thread that forms the textile known as polyester.
General Properties of Polyester Textile:
The length of the textile is controlled and can be produced in filament or staple form.
Polyester can be produced to be any desired fineness especially when combined with other fibres.
Polyester has a typical cross sectional shape which is round but it can also be made triangular, elliptical or pentagonal. Naturally white in colour polyester can be dyed any colour during the spinning stage of production.
Polyester’s tenacity varies from 4.5 to 5.0 grams and in some cases it may be as high as 8.0 grams per denier.
Due to polyester’s good extension, strength and functional property polyester is widely used as sewing thread in the garment industries.
Polyester displays excellent resilient properties and does not crease easily and any undue creasing can be recovered easily.
Once heat-set at around 200 degrees Celsius polyester becomes dimensionally stable and does not shrink or stretch.
Due to polyester’s low moisture regain ranging from 0 – 0,4 percent the fibre feels warm and cleans very easily.
Reaction to bleaching agents:
Pure polyester is strong enough not to over react to exposure to bleaching agents unless if combined with other more gentile fibres.
Reaction to acid and alkali:
Polyester is unaffected by acid and alkali.
Reaction to organic solvent:
Polyester textile is unaffected by organic solvent, hence polyester fibre can be dry-cleaned.
Reaction to Sunlight & Heat:
Prolonged exposure to sunlight can reduce the strength of polyester and the fibre melts between 227- 242 degrees Celsius.
Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing polyester fibre during the spinning phase of production.
Polyester is resistant to mildew, moths and other insect infestations.
End use of Polyester textiles:
Polyester is used for thermal underwear, accessories and apparels both in its pure 100% form or blended with cotton, nylon, wool, rayon and acetate fibres.